TOEFLテストリーディング問題270 4訂版 (TOEFL(R)大戦略)

目標80〜100のリーディング

TOEFLのリーディングを攻略するための問題が、目的別に4つのChapterに分けられています。短めの文章が取り上げられているので、本書の問題をこなしていくと自然に長い文章も読めるようになるでしょう。また様々な分野を扱っているため、読解力と同時に教養や語彙も身に付きます。

目次

Preface
INTRODUCTION
本書の利用法
Web特典について
留学準備を始めよう!
TOEFL® XE Information
TOEFL iBT® 受験ガイド
CHAPTER 1 TOEFL リーディング問題傾向と対策
出題内容と形式
設問の解き方
リーディング問題の対策
リーディング問題操作方法
CHAPTER 2 基礎学習
STEP1 タイトルからパッセージの内容を推測する。《文化》
STEP2 設問と選択肢からパッセージに関するヒントをつかみ解答にうまく生かす《コミュニケーション/言語》
STEP 3 内容の予測をしながら読む《地理)
STEP4 文脈を利用して意味をつかむ~文の前後,補足説明や繰り返しをヒントにする《法律)
STEP 5 文法的結束性から意味をつかむ《倫理》
STEP 6 イメージしながら内容をつかむ《天体》
STEP 7 メモを取って、内容をまとめる ~図式化して内容を視覚的に整理する 《化学》

STEP 8論理的思考を働かせながら読む《健康)
STEP 9年数・年代などを表す数字や表現に注意する。《歴史)
STEP 10英文パラグラフの構成を知る《考古学)
STEP 11バッセージの展開を見る (1)「過程・段階」を表すバッセージ 《植物)
STEP 12バッセージの展開を見る (2)「原因・結果」を表すパッセージ《生物)
STEP 13 パッセージの展開を見る (3) 「比較・対照」を表すバッセージ《地学》
STEP 14 パッセージの展開を見る(4) 「分類」を表すパッセージ
STEP 15人物史に関するパッセージの読み方 《伝記)
STEP 16 医学や生理学に関するパッセージの読み方 《医学)
STEP 17 動物に関するバッセージの読み方《動物)
CHAPTER 3 実戦練習
実戦練習1
実戦練習2
CHAPTER 4 Final Test
Final Test 1 QUESTIONS
Final Test 2 QUESTIONS
Final Test 1 ANSWERS
Final Test 2 ANSWERS

田中 真紀子 (著)
出版社: 旺文社; 4訂版 (2014/2/21)、出典:出版社HP

本書の利用

本書は,TOEFL受験に関するInformationと,以下の4つのCHAPTERから構成されています。
CHAPTER 1 TOEFL リーディング問題 傾向と対策
イラスト スクリーンショット 2020-03-06 10.55.51省略
TOEFLリーディング問題の設問形式や,傾向と対策。そしてパソコン画面についてそれぞれ解説してあります。まずはここを読み、リーディングの概要を知ることから始めましょう。
CHAPTER 2 基礎学習
イラスト スクリーンショット 2020-03-06 10.55.51省略
17のステップを1つ1つ進めていくことで,リーディングの基礎学習が完成するようになっています。全て終わったときには、リーディングの力が確実に身についているはずです。
CHAPTER 3 実戦練習
イラスト スクリーンショット 2020-03-06 10.56.00省略
CHAPTER2で基礎的な力をつけた後は、実戦形式の練習を重ねて、さらに力を伸ばしましょう。
CHAPTER 4Final Test
イラスト スクリーンショット 2020-03-06 10.56.00省略
最後に,実際の試験形式の問題を2セット解き、ここまでに自分が身につけたかを確認しましょう。自分の得意なこと、苦手なことを認識し,必要があれば前に戻って復習をして,試験の準備を万端にしておきましょう。

●TOEFLリーディング問題傾向と対策
1)出題内容と形式
●出題内容
TOEFLリーディング・セクションは英語の読解力を測る試験である。制限時間60~80分の間に3~4題のパッセージを読み、それぞれ12~14問に解答する。各パッセージの長さは700語程度で、内容は天文学地理、生物政治,経済,心理学,文化人類学、哲学、言語学,医学,物理学など多岐にわたっている。レベル的には,大学の教養課程で学習するような、いわゆる一般教養が多い。

具体的には、アメリカの歴史,人物,文化に加え、エジプトとメソポタミアの文明の比較,エジプトの絵画の分析など、グローバルな内容になっている。中にはダーウィンが提唱した自然選択の問題点,都市部のヒートアイランド現象,海岸沿いの気象など、一見専門的に見えるかもしれないパッセージもあるが、専門知識が問われることはなく,設問はパッセージを読めば解答できるように作られている。しかし、これらの内容に関する知識の有無が、パッセージの理解にかなり影響することは言うまでもない。

●出題形式
以下に挙げた出題形式はiBTの代表的なものである。本書では、パッセージの内容を確実に把握する力を養成するために,これまでの出題形式を含めた幅広い出題形式を扱っている。
1四肢選択
・内容一致(バッセージの内容と一致するものを選ぶ設問)
・内容不一致(パッセージの内容と一致しないものを選ぶ設問)
・主題・主旨(パッセージの主題・主旨を選ぶ設問)
・語彙(語句の意味を尋ねる設問)
・代名詞(代名詞が何を指しているかを尋ねる設問)
・推測(パッセージの内容から推測できること,あるいは推測できないことを選ぶ設問)
・筆者の意図・結論(筆者の立場などを問う設問)
以上は、4つの選択肢から、1つ正解を選ぶ方式で解答する。パッセージ中の英文が表しているイラストを4つの選択肢の中から1つ選ぶという設問も過去に出題されている。
2単文挿入
・与えられた文をパッセージの最適な箇所に挿入する設問
3要点把握,要点分類
・要点把握(パッセージの中心的な概念が述べられている文を6つの選択肢から3つ選ぶ設問)
・要点分類(記述されている文あるいは語句がパッセージの中で比較対照されている2つの項目のどちらに属するか、分類する設問)

STEP1 タイトルからパッセージの内容を推測する
「学習目標】
パッセージを読む前に、タイトル(表題)を読んで、パッセージの内容と出題される設問の予測をする。
ポイント
TOEFL iBTのリーディングは, TOEFLITP (ペーパー形式の団体受験)と違って、全てのバッセージにタイトルがついている。TOEFL iBTでは、約700語に及ぶ長いパッセージが出題されるので、タイトルがあるのは受験者にとって大変ありがたい。それはタイトルを読むことで、大まかな内容や設問の予測ができ,その分、解答しやすくなるからである。
例えば、ETSがインターネット上に掲載している「TOEFLガイド」(TOEFL İBT Tips How to prepare for the next generation TOEFL test and Communicate with Confidence”)を見ると, Introduction以下に次の2つのタイトルがつけられている。
What is different about the TOEFL iBT test? Why is the TOEFL test changing?
ここから、まず前者に関しては,TOEFL iBTが従来のテストとどの点で異なるのか、その「相違点」また後者に関しては、これまでのテスト方式と変わった「理由」が述べられていることが分かる。これが試験であれば、いくつかの「相違点」や「理由」が読解のポイントとなる。そこで、パッセージを読む前に、まずタイトルを確認し、内容や設問の予測をするようにしたい。
“http://www.transint.boun.edu.tr/toet/beigeler/tips.pot
(2014年1月現在)

田中 真紀子 (著)
出版社: 旺文社; 4訂版 (2014/2/21)、出典:出版社HP

実践練習1

time: 60 minutes
Passage 1
The Problems of the Human Body During Space Travel
1 Specialists in space medicine study the adverse effects of space flight on humans. Space medicine is the practice of medicine for astronauts in outer space. It deals with the effects of space flight on human beings. The main objective of the study is to discover how well people can adapt to the extreme conditions in space and how long they can survive in such an environment.

It also examines how fast they can readapt to the Earth’s environment after returning from their space flights. Most of the factors in space travel — such as accelerati deceleration forces, the need for an artificial atmosphere, and noise and vibration are potentially dangerous during flight and can be compensated for in ways similar to how airplanes handle them. Space medicine scientists, however, must consider two additional problems: the increased radiation outside the atmosphere,and “zero gravity.”

Early tests showed that the radiation was not such a great danger after all,Short orbital flights produced exposures about equal to one medical X-ray. This is a negligible dose and poses no threat, as long as space flights are planned to avoid periods when solar flares are expected to occur, which can emit dangerous levels of gamma radiation. Regardless, the spacecraft has to provide protection from extraordinary solar activity as well as against background radiation.

The second concern – the effects of weightlessness – was not obvious at first. Few serious physiological problems were noted during the early years of space flight. The body functions that were monitored included heart rate, pulse, body temperature, blood pressure, respiration, speech and mental alertness, and brain waves. A Few changes occurred. B Changes in the levels of hormones and in the concentration of salt in the blood did take place, but these were not detrimental. C The problem of eating in weightlessness was overcome by packaging food in containers that could be squeezed directly into the mouth. D

However, as the length of space missions increased, scientists at NASA were surprised by the magnitude of physiological changes induced by extended periods in a gravity-free environment. Astronauts returning from prolonged stays aboard space stations have clearly shown that the human body severely deconditions when exposed to microgravity conditions.

Serious medical problems, especially the weakening of bone matter and muscle strength, were observed. When gravitation is taken away, bone calcium and phosphorus are excessively excreted in urine and feces. The loss of calcium in urine may produce urinary stones, and the decrease of bone density will lead to bone fracture.

It is reported that after a 3-4 month trip into space, it takes about 2-3 years to regain lost bone density Within the orbiting spacecraft, astronauts can move around as they wish just by softly pushing against its walls, but in a microgravity environment, muscles rapidly atrophy. In space, muscles in the legs, back, and spine, weaken and waste away because they no longer are used to overcome gravity. Moreover, atrophy of certain muscles, particularly those of the heart, was seen to be especially dangerous because of its effect on the functioning of the entire cardiovascular system.

Even blood itself was affected, with a measurable decrease in the number of oxygen-carrying cells. In space, astronauts may lose up to 22% of their blood volume. Because it has less blood to pump, the heart weakens. A weakened heart results in low blood pressure and can produce a problem with worthostatic tolerance.” The body loses ability to send enough oxygen to the brain, causing astronauts to faint or become dizzy.

Under the effects of the Earth’s gravity, blood and other body fluids are pulled towards the lower part of the body. When gravity is reduced during space exploration, the distribution of body fluid alters, and the blood tends to collect in the upper body instead. This “fluid shift” results in facial edema, or puffy face, and other unwelcome side effects such as stuffy nose and headache. Despite the shift in the distribution of fluid, the cardiovascular system adapts to the microgravity environment if the astronaut continues to stay in space. Upon return to Earth, however, the blood shifts rapidly back to the lower body again, resulting in orthostatic hypotension, a fall in blood pressure.

Final Test 1 time: 60 minutes 解答・解説p260–265
Passage 1
Culture and its Influence on People’s Communication Styles When the word culture is used, it is often used to refer to people and their respective nationalities and backgrounds. These varying backgrounds play a role in influencing the way they communicate. Within a nation, regional differences can exert a powerful influence on communication.

The difference in behavior between Alaskans and New Yorkers may cause one to think they are from two different countries. Race and ethnicity can also shape behavior. So can age. The customs, values, and attitudes of a college-age person may vary significantly from those of his or her parents who were raised in the 1950s, or grandparents, who lived through the Great Depression and World War II. Other differences that can create distinctive cultures include gender, sexual orientation, physical disabilities, religion, and socio-economic background.

All of these factors lead to a definition of culture as an acquired set of shared notions about beliefs, values, and norms. Culture affects people’s behavior, including their communication styles; this is something that has to be learned, rather than something that is instilled at birth.

For example, Americans who adopt from Korea should have children that differ in behavior from those who are born and raised in places like Seoul or Busan. This illustrates how an individual may have a worldview that differs from another’s, based on where i.e. a small town, the inner city, or a rural area) he or she grows up. One’s perceptions and understanding of the world could also be influenced by how one’s cultural heritage is valued.

For instance, African heritage has a different value in France than it does in the United States. This difference in values may determine how French and Americans of African descent learn to behave.

Underlying what might appear to be idiosyncrasies in behavior are a number of fundamental values that shape the way members of a culture think, feel, and act. When we appreciate these fundamental differences, we will understand how and why people from different backgrounds act as they do, and we will have ideas of how we can adapt to improve the quality of our communication with others.

Two distinct types of cultures have been identified, concerning the way messages are delivered between the members of a single culture. The first one is called a low-context culture, where logical and clear expressions of thoughts, feelings, and ideas are preferred. A To communicators in a low-context culture, the literal meaning of words is valued. B The second type is called a high-context culture. People who live in this type of culture tend to focus on the subtle, nonverbal part of communication not only to convey messages, but also in order to avoid issues such as embarrassment or social disharmony.

C If a high-context speaker needs to communicate in a difficult or uncomfortable situati one in which a listener may get upset, he or she could speak indirectly by using context, rather than by using straightforward speech. In the case of the United States and Canada, people tend to be more on the low-context side than high. Din other words, rather than beating around the bush,” which is not always tolerated, people often speak more frankly. In contrast, countries in the Middle East and Asia often employ high-context communication. For example, when people in some areas in Asia need to handle tough situations, such as when they wish to uphold their dignity while managing a complex or heated conversation, it is common for both parties to practice non-threatening, indirect speech.

The clash between directness and indirectness can further aggravate problems between straight-talking, low-context communicators such as Israelis, who value speaking clearly, and high-context communicators such as Arabs, whose culture stresses smooth interaction. It is easy to imagine how the clash of cultural styles could lead to misunderstandings and conflicts between Israelis and Palestinians. Israelis might view their Arab counterparts as evasive, while Palestinians might perceive the Israelis as insensitive and blunt

America embodies a number of cultures that co-exist, which means its people may place value on direct speech differently. Puerto Ricans who move away from their island to the mainland may continue to use a speaking style that is reminiscent of some high-context Asian cultures, like Japan, which means it is unlike mainstream American speech. The Puerto Rican culture values social balance and despises confrontation, and this is something that can persist even when surrounded by standardized English.

The relatively straightforward African-American style of communicating is not totally direct. In many cases it is characterized by the speaker’s use of

田中 真紀子 (著)
出版社: 旺文社; 4訂版 (2014/2/21)、出典:出版社HP